What are the common causes and risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia?

Several risk factors for CAP are recognised, including age >65 years,1 ,6 ,7 smoking,6 alcoholism,7 immunosuppressive conditions,7 and conditions such as COPD,8 cardiovascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, chronic liver or renal disease, diabetes mellitus and dementia.

What is the most common cause of community-acquired pneumonia in children?

Viruses are the most frequent cause of pneumonia in preschool-aged children; Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common bacterial pathogen. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae often are the etiologic agents in children older than five years and in adolescents.

How common is community-acquired pneumonia?

The estimated worldwide incidence of community-acquired pneumonia varies between 1.5 to 14 cases per 1000 person-years, and this is affected by geography, season, and population characteristics. In the United States, the annual incidence is 24.8 cases per 10,000 adults with higher rates as age increases.

Which person is at greatest risk for developing a community-acquired pneumonia?

Pneumonia can affect anyone. But the two age groups at highest risk are: Children who are 2 years old or younger. People who are age 65 or older.

What is the most common cause of pneumonia in adults?

In adults, bacteria are the most common cause of pneumonia. Ways you can get pneumonia include: Bacteria and viruses living in your nose, sinuses, or mouth may spread to your lungs. You may breathe some of these germs directly into your lungs.

How can community-acquired pneumonia be prevented?

Prevention via Vaccination Although pneumococcal vaccines do not prevent all types of CAP, vaccination is considered the safest and most effective method of disease prevention. The CDC recommends routine vaccination against pneumococcal disease.

What are the three major causes of pneumonia?

Others included three HIV/AIDS deaths in 2020 which saw an increase of seven in 2021, Cerebrovascular Accident (CVA) related deaths in 2020 were five as against eight in 2021. Among the top 10 cases disclosed, Encephalopathy, Liver Disease, Tuberculosis, Anemia, Respiratory Failure, CCF, and Intestinal Obstruction.

What is the difference between hospital and community acquired pneumonia?

Pneumonia is generally classified into two types – community acquired pneumonia and nosocomial (hospital acquired) pneumonia. In the former case the causative pathogens are primarily viruses and gram positive bacteria while in the later case the causative pathogens are primarily gram negative organisms.

How to treat community acquired pneumonia?

CT scan pictures may show a lung infection or other problems,such as fluid around your lungs.

  • A pulse oximeter is a device that measures the amount of oxygen in your blood.
  • Blood and sputum tests may be done to check for the germ causing your infection.
  • Are PPIs associated with community-acquired pneumonia?

    Although the cohort analysis found that PPIs were associated with an increased risk of community acquired pneumonia (incidence rate ratio 1.67, 1.55 to 1.79), the other analyses did not.