What do microphylls do?

Generally, the main function of both microphylls and megaphylls is to undergo photosynthesis. In comparison, the main structural feature of megaphylls is the presence of multiple veins. Also, they contain leaf gaps.

How are Microphylls and Megaphylls different?

Microphylls are defined as leaves of small size, with simple venation (one vein) and associated with steles that lack leaf gaps (protosteles). By contrast, megaphylls are defined as leaves of generally larger size, with complex venation and associated with leaf gaps in the stele [3].

Where is microphyll found?

Generally, each leaf, or microphyll, is narrow and has an unbranched midvein, in contrast to the leaves of the ferns and seed plants, which generally have branched venation. The sporangia (spore cases) occur singly on the adaxial side (the upper side facing the stem) of the leaf. The lycophytes…

What are microphylls in biology?

In plant anatomy and evolution a microphyll (or lycophyll) is a type of plant leaf with one single, unbranched leaf vein. Plants with microphyll leaves occur early in the fossil record, and few such plants exist today.

What are microphylls megaphylls and sporophylls?

A sporophyll is a leaf that bears sporangia. Both microphylls and megaphylls can be sporophylls. In heterosporous plants, sporophylls (whether they are microphylls or megaphylls) bear either megasporangia and thus are called megasporophylls, or microsporangia and are called microsporophylls.

How do sporophylls differ from microphylls?

is that microphyll is (botany) a leaf having a single unbranched vein, or a structure that is derived from such a leaf while sporophyll is (botany) the equivalent to a leaf, in ferns and mosses, that bears the sporangia.

What is the evolutionary significance of megaphylls?

The evolutionary significance of megaphylls is that they increase the surface area for photosynthesis. Megaphylls are leaves. They provide a large surface area to maximize photosynthesis. Leaves increase the surface area of the plant body and serve as the primary photosynthetic organ of vascular plants.

How are megaphylls produced?

According to this theory, megaphylls evolved once from leafless dichotomous axes of the ancestral sporophyte -the telomes -after three processes: (i) elongation of a central telome causing the lateralization of others (overtopping), (ii) two-dimensional disposal of these lateral telomes (planation), and (iii) fusion of …

Are microphylls photosynthetic?

Microphyll refers to the leaves of the Lycopodiophyta. Each has only a single, unbranched vascular trace (“vein”), and is typically but not always photosynthetic.

What do sporophylls do?

A sporophyll is a leaf that produces spores. Sporophylls are part of the diploid sporophyte generation, and the spores are produced by meiosis and will germinate to produce haploid gametophytes. The spores are born in sporangia, which can take various forms in different kinds of plants.

Why are the dryopteris leaves called sporophylls?

A leaf that bears sporangia (spore-producing structures) is called as sporophyll.

What is the function of mitochondria?

Mitochondria is the powerhouse of the cell, which produces energy. It is a membrane-bound organelle, present in the cytoplasm of the cell of Eukaryotic organisms which synthesizes energy molecules in the form of ATP, which is used by the cell. Hypothetically mitochondria are believed to have originated as prokaryotic cells like bacteria.

What are microphylls in lycophytes?

One of the synapomorphies of the lycophytes is the presence of microphylls. Microphylls are true leaves, and as such, are borne in a definite pattern (phyllotaxy) on the stem, but they have an evolutionary history separate from the leaves of other vascular plants (megaphylls, see discussion in Chapter 11).

What is the role of the mitochondria in the synthesis of ATP?

The synthesis of ATP would be incomplete without the enzymes of the matrix which aid the most important chemical cycles. The prime function of mitochondria is to produce energy. It is the power generation plant where the nutrients turn into ATP by a chemical process. The other major roles played by mitochondria are carrying out cellular metabolism.

What is the shape of mitochondria?

Although mitochondria are often drawn as oval-shaped organelles, they are constantly dividing (fission) and bonding together (fusion). So, in reality, these organelles are linked together in ever-changing networks.