## What does the CES-D measure?

Description of Measure: The Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (CES-D), originally published by Radloff in 1977, is a 20-item measure that asks caregivers to rate how often over the past week they experienced symptoms associated with depression, such as restless sleep, poor appetite, and feeling lonely.

## How are CES-D scores calculated?

The Total CESD-R Score is calculated as a sum of responses to all 20 questions. In order to make the revised CESD-R have the same range as the original version i.e., the ‘CESD style score’), the values for the top two responses are given the same value: Not at all or less than one day = 0. 1-2 days = 1.

What is the CES-D 10?

Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) The CES-D-10 is a 10-item Likert scale questionnaire assessing depressive symptoms in the past week [10]. It includes three items on depressed affect, five items on somatic symptoms, and two on positive affect.

### How many questions did those who developed the CES-D’r originally consider including in this scale?

As in the original CESD the range of possible scores is between 0 (for those who say ‘not at all or less than one day to all 20 questions’ and 60 (for those who say ‘5-7 days’ or ‘nearly every day for 2 weeks’ for all 20 questions).

### Who invented the CES-D?

The original CES-D as developed by Radloff in 1977 contains 20 items, four of which are reverse coded. Reverse-coded items (4, 8, 12, & 16) are written in the positive direction to both break response sets as well as measure presence or absence of positive affect.

How do you score CES-D 10?

CES-D 20 and CES-D 10 A score is assigned by totaling all items (after reversing the positive mood items]. The possible range for the 20-item scale is 0 to 60, and a cut off score of 16 or higher indicates the presence of significant depressive symptoms.

## Is the CES-D a Likert scale?

The CES–D consists of 20 items in a self-report format measuring depressive symptoms experienced in the past week on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 0 (rarely or none of the time) to 3 (most or all of the time).

## Is CES-D free?

The CES-D is a cost effective, reliable, and valid screening instrument used to quickly assess the behavioral, cognitive, and affective symptoms of depression. The CES-D can be used without permission and is free of charge.

What were the measures of reliability and validity of the CES-D measurement?

The 14-item CES-D scale had satisfactory internal consistency with a Cronbach’s coefficient alpha of 0.87. The average inter-item correlation for all items was 0.32, which was acceptable and suggested that the items measure the same construct well.

### How many items are on the Geriatric Depression Scale?

30-item
The GDS was originally developed as a 30-item instrument. Since this version proved both time-consuming and difficult for some patients to complete, a 15-item version was developed. The shortened form (GDS-S) is comprised of 15 items chosen from the Geriatric Depression Scale-Long Form (GDS-L).