What is the purpose of cardioplegia?
Cardioplegia is an essential component of cardiopulmonary bypass and with the primary goal to reduce myocardial oxygen demand by creating electrical quiescence and cooling the heart to reduce the ischemic effects of being on bypass.
What is a cardioplegia device?
Overview. Cardioplegia plays a critical role keeping the heart protected and arrested during cardiopulmonary bypass by maintaining a desired ratio of blood and cardioplegic solution at a prescribed temperature.
What are cardioplegic drugs?
Cardioplegia Solution A is a sterile, non-pyrogenic solution for cardiac perfusion in a Viaflex bag. It is used to induce cardiac stasis and to protect the myocardium during open-heart surgery.
How does cardioplegia solution work?
As the cardioplegia solution distributes to the entire myocardium, the ECG will change and eventually asystole will ensue. Cardioplegia lowers the metabolic rate of the heart muscle, thereby preventing cell death during the ischemic period of time.
How do you prepare a cardioplegia solution?
make the solution, add the following to 1 liter of dH 2 O while mixing using a magnetic stirrer: 0.99 g of glucose (5.50 mM), 0.13 g of magnesium sulfate (0.50 mM), 1.79 g of potassium chloride (24.00 mM), 1.68 g of sodium bicarbonate (20.00 mM), 6.37 g of sodium chloride (109.00 mM), 0.12 g of sodium phosphate …
Why potassium is used in cardioplegia?
Chemically, the high potassium concentration present in most cardioplegic solutions decreases the membrane resting potential of cardiac cells. The normal resting potential of ventricular myocytes is about -90 mV.
Where is cardioplegia injected?
Anterograde cardioplegia is administered into a small cannula placed in the ascending aorta or directly into the coronary ostia. Retrograde cardioplegia is delivered through a catheter placed through the right atrium into the coronary sinus. Cardioplegia is then delivered into the venous system of the heart.
What is extracellular cardioplegia?
Cardioplegic solutions are defined as intracellular and extracellular solutions based on the concentrations of sodium and potassium ions. Extracellular solutions contain high levels of potassium, magnesium and sodium, while intracellular solutions contain low electrolyte levels.
Why does cardioplegia stop the heart?
Cardioplegia lowers the metabolic rate of the heart muscle, thereby preventing cell death during the ischemic period of time.
What is cardioplegia?
The word cardioplegia combines the Greek cardio meaning the “heart”, and plegia “paralysis”. Technically, this means arresting or stopping the heart so that surgical procedures can be done in a still and bloodless field.
What are the ingredients of cardioplegia?
Cardioplegia varies by composition, delivery methods, temperature, and additives; however, all solutions must include potassium chloride (15-35 meq/L) important for inducing cardiac arrest, and other electrolytes such as Mg2+, low-dose Ca2+, Cl-. Na+.
What is blood cardioplegia (buckerberg’s)?
Blood cardioplegia (Buckerberg’s): 4:1 blood: a crystalloid composition that was created and seen as the ideal delivery solution due to blood having: Natural buffering system Normal oncotic pressure Improved oxygen delivery Innate free radical scavenging mechanism
What is an anterograde cardioplegia?
Cardioplegia administration can be anterograde, retrograde, or both. The anterograde cardioplegia is inserted in the proximal aorta and contains three lumens: one to administer the cardioplegia, another for suctioning, and the third to measure intraluminal pressure.