Which drug is used for organophosphate?

Medication Summary. The mainstays of medical therapy in organophosphate (OP) poisoning include atropine, pralidoxime (2-PAM), and benzodiazepines (eg, diazepam). Initial management must focus on adequate use of atropine.

What are examples of organophosphate pesticides?

Examples of organophosphates include the following:

  • Insecticides – Malathion, parathion, diazinon, fenthion, dichlorvos, chlorpyrifos, ethion.
  • Nerve gases – Soman, sarin, tabun, VX.
  • Ophthalmic agents – Echothiophate, isoflurophate.
  • Antihelmintics – Trichlorfon.
  • Herbicides – Tribufos (DEF), merphos.

Which drug causes organophosphate poisoning?

Drugs used to treat Organophosphate Poisoning

Drug name Rating Reviews
Generic name: atropine / pralidoxime systemic Drug class: antidotes For consumers: dosage, interactions, side effects For professionals: Prescribing Information
View information about tropicamide tropicamide Rate Add review

What is the most toxic organophosphate?

Organophosphate poisoning occurs most commonly as a suicide attempt in farming areas of the developing world and less commonly by accident….

Organophosphate poisoning
Medication Atropine, oximes, diazepam
Frequency Nearly 3 million per year
Deaths >200,000 per year

Why atropine is given in OP poisoning?

Atropine is administered intravenously to restore adequate cardiorespiratory function rapidly – a process often termed ‘atropinzation’. It is used to reverse bradycardia and improve systolic blood pressure to greater than 80 mmHg.

What are the most common organophosphate pesticides?

The most commonly used organophosphate pesticides are the following:

  • Parathion.
  • Chlorpyrifos.
  • Diazinon.
  • Dichlorvos.
  • Phosmet.
  • Fenitrothion.
  • Tetrachlorvinphos.
  • Azamethiphos.

What does organophosphate do to the body?

Organophosphate insecticides (such as diazinon) are one type of pesticide that works by damaging an enzyme in the body called acetylcholinesterase. This enzyme is critical for controlling nerve signals in the body. The damage to this enzyme kills pests and may cause unwanted side effects in exposed humans.

What is the antidote to diazepam?

Flumazenil (Romazicon®) is the antidote for benzodiazepines, such as diazepam (Valium®), lorazepam (Ativan®), and midazolam (Versed®), and must be administered intravenously.

What is an organophosphate?

Organophosphates, or OPs, are esters of phosphoric acid. Many have high mammalian toxicity and may require frequent application because they are generally not persistent. Organophosphates are nerve poisons, acting through inhibition of cholinesterase.

Why are organophosphates so popular as insecticides?

The popularity of these insecticides increased after many of the organochlorine insecticides such as DDT, dieldrin, and heptachlor were banned in the 1970s. Effective organophosphates have the following structural features: Within these requirements, a large number of different lipophilic and leaving groups have been used.

How do organophosphate pesticides degrade?

Organophosphate pesticides degrade rapidly by hydrolysis on exposure to sunlight, air, and soil, although small amounts can be detected in food and drinking water.

How many people are exposed to organophosphates?

An estimated 3 million or more people worldwide are exposed to organophosphates each year, accounting for about 300,000 deaths. In the United States, there are around 8000 exposures per year with very few deaths.