How are self assembled monolayers formed?

Figure 1 Self-assembled monolayers are formed by simply immersing a substrate into a solution of the surface-active material. The driving force for the spontaneous formation of the 2D assembly includes chemical bond formation of molecules with the surface and intermolecular interactions.

Are gold nanoparticles toxic to humans?

Some studies have shown that AuNPs are not toxic, though many other studies contradict this statement. In order to have a holistic inference, more studies are required that will focus on characterization of NPs and changes of physical properties before and after treatment with biological media.

What is the use of self assembled monolayers?

SAMs can serve as models for studying membrane properties of cells and organelles and cell attachment on surfaces. SAMs can also be used to modify the surface properties of electrodes for electrochemistry, general electronics, and various NEMS and MEMS.

How thick are self assembled monolayers?

one molecule thick
A self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is a one molecule thick layer of material that bonds to a surface in an ordered way as a result of physical or chemical forces during a deposition process.

Are gold nanoparticles expensive?

However, a single milligram of gold nanoparticles currently costs about $80 (depending on the size of the nanoparticles). That places the price of gold nanoparticles at $80,000 per gram while a gram of pure, raw gold goes for about $50.

Why are gold nanoparticles good?

Gold nanoparticles are versatile materials for a broad range of applications with well characterized electronic and physical properties due to well-developed synthetic procedures. In addition, their surface chemistry is easy to modify.

How long do gold nanoparticles stay in the body?

Unlike conventional imaging agents and therapeutics, many nanoparticles are highly stable in vivo—exemplified by a recent study suggested that quantum dots may be retained in the body (and remain fluorescent) for more than 100 days [2].

What are the long term effects of nanoparticles?

The effects of inhaled nanoparticles in the body may include lung inflammation and heart problems. Studies in humans show that breathing in diesel soot causes a general inflammatory response and alters the system that regulates the involuntary functions in the cardiovascular system, such as control of heart rate.