What does VP40 do in Ebola?
VP40 coordinates numerous functions in the viral life cycle of the Ebola virus. These include: regulation of viral transcription, morphogenesis, packaging and budding of mature virions. VP40 goes through intermediate states of assembly (e.g. octamers).
Could the Ebola virus matrix protein VP40 be a drug target?
VP40 is required for the virus to exit from the host cell membrane, suggesting it is a potential drug target2,4,5. In addition to forming the matrix layer in the viral particles, VP40 interacts with several host proteins during trafficking to and while residing at the plasma membrane6,7,8,9,10,11.
What is the role of the Ebola GP in viral replication?
The virion-attached GP is critical in the EBOV life cycle, as it is solely responsible for attachment, fusion and entry of target cells. Moreover, GP is responsible for critical pathogenic differences among viral species.
How many proteins does the Ebola virus have?
The genome of ebola virus contains instructions for building seven proteins, which assemble with the genomic RNA to form one of the deadliest viruses.
Is VP40 a glycoprotein?
VP40 is the most prominent viral structural protein and most likely represents the matrix protein of filoviruses. A nonstructural glycoprotein has recently been discovered with Ebola viruses.
How does Ebola virus replicate?
Ebola Virus do not replicate through any kind of cell division; rather, they use a combination of host and virally encoded enzymes, alongside host cell structures, to produce multiple copies of viruses.
What receptors does Ebola bind to?
The tropism of the Ebola virus depends on the expression of the receptor at the entry of the virus by the target cell. Several receptors of Filoviridae were determined. The Ebola GP is bound to the C-type lectins as DC-SIGN, L-SIGN and hMGL expressed by monocytic, dendritic and macrophage cells [30–33].
What structure does Ebola have?
They are cylindrical/tubular, and contain viral envelope, matrix, and nucleocapsid components. The virus generally appears in a long, filamentous form, but it can also be “U-shaped,” in the shape of a “6” (the “shepherd’s crook” appearance), or even circular.
How does Ebola attach to cells?
Embedded within the host-derived lipid envelope of Ebola virus are glycoprotein spikes that bind to cells and mediate fusion between the viral envelope and the host cell membrane, enabling the virus to release its contents into the host-cell cytoplasm.
Which cells are affected by Ebola?
Macrophages, a type of immune cell that Ebola infects, release proteins that cause clots in the bloodstream, blocking blood flow to organs such as the liver and kidneys. Red blood cells break apart when moving through small vessels filled with clots.