What is a galactogram procedure?

Galactography uses mammography and an injection of contrast material to create pictures of the inside of the breast’s milk ducts. It is most commonly used when a woman has experienced a bloody or clear discharge from the breast nipple but has an otherwise normal mammogram.

What is a mammary Ductogram?

A ductogram, also known as a galactogram, is an imaging test used to identify the cause of nipple discharge. The ductography procedure is similar to a mammogram, except that a contrast dye is injected into the breast before the X-ray, to provide an even more detailed view of the milk ducts.

How do you do a Ductogram?

In a ductogram, a small flexible tube is gently inserted into a milk duct in your nipple. The milk duct is then filled with liquid contrast agent. You may feel pressure inside your breast like the experience of milk letdown while breastfeeding.

Why is a Ductogram performed?

A ductogram is used to identify the cause of spontaneous nipple discharge. Because nipple discharge can be caused by many factors, ductography is used to screen for diseases ranging from carcinoma to ductal ectasia and papilloma.

What is a hadfields procedure?

Hadfield’s procedure (total duct excision) This is a procedure performed to disconnect the ducts behind your nipple. This is performed to remove benign papillomas of the breast, to reach a diagnosis for nipple discharge, as treatment for reoccurring breast abscess and to stop the nipple discharge.

How is a Microdochectomy performed?

The operation is performed under a general anaesthetic. A small incision around the areola (the line between the brown area of the nipple and the remaining skin of the breast) is made and all of the ducts are removed and sent for pathological assessment.

What contrast is used in Ductogram?

Standard US-guided techniques are used with a 27-gauge needle attached to a small-volume (1–3 mL) syringe filled with contrast material (or contrast material and methylene blue in a 1:1 ratio for a preoperative procedure).

What is molecular breast imaging?

Molecular breast imaging is a test that uses a radioactive tracer and special camera to find breast cancer. Rather than simply taking a picture of a breast, molecular breast imaging is a type of functional imaging. This means that the pictures it creates show differences in the activity of the tissue.

Is mammography nuclear medicine?

Scintimammography is also known as nuclear medicine breast imaging, Breast Specific Gamma Imaging (BSGI) and Molecular Breast Imaging (MBI). Your doctor may use this exam to investigate a breast abnormality found with mammography. Nuclear medicine uses small amounts of radioactive material called radiotracers.

What are the contraindications for ductoscopy in the treatment of breast cancer?

Many benign and malignant breast diseases originate from ductal cells. Ductoscopy can be performed for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes to assist in the detection and treatment of these conditions in patients with pathological nipple discharge (PND). [ 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 14] There are no specific absolute contraindications to the procedure.

How do you use a sterile Ductoscope for a CT scan?

Attach a sterile ductoscope to a draped camera cord and sterile light cord. A sterile disposable cannula is inserted over the scope after priming the catheter with either lidocaine or saline. Air bubbles should be removed carefully from the cannula.

Does ductoscopy impact QoL of PND patients over time?

Ductoscopy is a minimally invasive technique that does not seem to impact QoL of PND patients over time. Breast-Q, SF-36 and EQ-5D-5L seem to be suitable existing QOL tests for PND patients undergoing ductoscopy, whereas SF-36 would require modifications.