What are the side effects of xanthine derivatives?

What are side effects of xanthine derivatives?

  • Central nervous system excitement.
  • Headache.
  • Insomnia.
  • Irritability.
  • Restlessness.
  • Skeletal muscle tremors.
  • Seizure.
  • Seizures that are resistant to anticonvulsants.

What is methylated xanthine?

Methylxanthines (methylated xanthines), which include caffeine, aminophylline, IBMX, paraxanthine, pentoxifylline, theobromine, and theophylline, affect the airways, increase heart rate and force of contraction, and at high concentrations can cause cardiac arrhythmias.

How is methyl xanthine derivatives?

Mechanism of action. Pentoxifylline is a methylxanthine derivative and nonselective inhibitor of the cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterases that increase the rate of breakdown of cAMP and cGMP. The drug has two major clinical effects: increasing microvascular blood flow, thereby enhancing oxygenation of ischemic tissue.

Which is derived from xanthine alkaloids?

The xanthine alkaloids include caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline, and are well-known components of tea (Camellia sinensis), coffee (Coffea arabica), cola ingredients (Cola spp.), and cocoa (Theobroma cacao). These are obviously consumed in considerable quantity around the world.

Which drugs are contraindications with administration of xanthine derivatives?

Methylxanthines are contraindicated in any patient with a history of hypersensitivity reaction to any medication with a xanthine-derivative component (including aminophylline, theophylline, ethylenediamine).

What is a xanthine derivative?

The xanthine derivatives are agents that resemble natural occurring xanthines such as caffeine, theobromine and methylxanthines. These are plant alkaloids and components of coffee, tea and chocolate.

What are the three xanthines?

Caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline (Figure 1) belong to a group of compounds known as the xanthines.

How do you remember anticholinergic side effects?

Students often learn the adverse effects of anticholinergics from a mnemonic, e.g.: “Blind as a bat, mad as a hatter, red as a beet, hot as a hare, dry as a bone, the bowel and bladder lose their tone, and the heart runs alone.” This refers to pupillary dilation and impaired lens accommodation, delusions.

What is the side effect of theophylline?

Nausea/vomiting, stomach/abdominal pain, headache, trouble sleeping, diarrhea, irritability, restlessness, nervousness, shaking, or increased urination may occur. If any of these effects last or get worse, tell your doctor or pharmacist promptly.

What is the most serious adverse effect of methylxanthines?

Methylxanthine has some well-documented acute adverse effects. Toxic levels can produce tachycardia, cardiac dysrhythmias, feeding intolerance, and seizures (infrequently), although these effects are seen less commonly with caffeine at the usual therapeutic doses.

What is xanthine derivatives?

GENERIC NAME: XANTHINE DERIVATIVES – ORAL Medication Uses | How To Use | Side Effects | Precautions | Drug Interactions | Overdose | Notes | Missed Dose | Storage | Medical Alert USES: This medication improves breathing by opening air passages in the lungs. It is used in the treatment of asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema.

What are the side effects of xanthine?

GENERIC NAME: XANTHINE DERIVATIVES – ORAL. SIDE EFFECTS: Dizziness, headache, lightheadedness, heartburn, stomach pain, loss of appetite, restlessness, nervousness, sleeplessness or increased urination may occur as your body adjusts to the medication. If these symptoms persist or worsen, inform your doctor.

Do xanthine derivatives bind to NTA sensor surface?

A panel of xanthine derivatives and unrelated compounds ranging in size from 136 to 194Da were tested at 200μM for binding to solubilized A2AR captured to a density of ~8000RU on an NTA sensor surface. The xanthines, which are purine analogues, are non-selective inhibitors of phosphodiesterase and also antagonists at adenosine receptors.

Which xanthine derivative is a selective inhibitor of PDE4?

Denbufylline ( Fig. 7.1) was the first xanthine derivative to be identified as a selective inhibitor of PDE4 with negligible adenosine antagonism (Nicholson et al., 1989 ). Although a series of further derivatives displaying PDE4 selectivity has been synthesized (see Palfreyman, 1995 ), no structure–activity relationship studies were reported.