What is the pathology of rheumatic heart disease?

Overview. Rheumatic heart disease is cardiac inflammation and scarring triggered by an autoimmune reaction to infection with group A streptococci. In the acute stage, this condition consists of pancarditis, involving inflammation of the myocardium, endocardium, and epicardium.

What is the characteristic microscopic lesion that is associated with rheumatic heart disease?

[6] Rheumatic carditis is characterized by Aschoff nodules and MacCallum plaques. Aschoff bodies are seen in nodules in the hearts affected with rheumatic fever. They result from inflammation in the heart muscle.

How does rheumatic fever affect the nervous system?

The body’s immune system typically targets infection-causing bacteria. In rheumatic fever, the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue, particularly in the heart, joints, skin and central nervous system. This faulty immune system reaction results in swelling of the tissues (inflammation).

What is the pathogenesis of rheumatic carditis?

Rheumatic Heart Valve Disease Pathophysiology and Underlying Mechanisms. Rheumatic heart valve disease (RHVD) is a post-infectious sequel of acute rheumatic fever resulting from an abnormal immune response to a streptococcal pharyngitis that triggers valvular damage.

What is the pathogenesis of rheumatic fever?

Acute rheumatic fever is a multiorgan inflammatory disorder affecting the heart, joints, brain, and skin. The pathogenic mechanism of molecular mimicry involves autoantibodies and T cells directed against group A streptococcal cell wall components and heart or brain antigens that have been extensively investigated.

What is the name of the bacteria that causes acute rheumatic fever?

How You Get Rheumatic Fever. Rheumatic fever may develop after strep throat or scarlet fever infections that are not treated properly. Bacteria called group A Streptococcus or group A strep cause strep throat and scarlet fever.

How does rheumatic fever affect the anatomical structures?

Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disorder caused by a Group A strep throat infection. It affects the connective tissue of the body, causing temporary, painful arthritis and other symptoms. In some cases rheumatic fever causes long-term damage to the heart and its valves. This is called rheumatic heart disease.

What is the pathogenesis of acute rheumatic fever?

What are the two theories of rheumatic fever pathogenesis?

Two basic theories have been postulated to explain the development of ARF and its sequelae following group A streptococcal infection: (1) a toxic effect produced by an extracellular toxin of group A streptococci on target organs such as the myocardium, valves, synovium, and brain and (2) an abnormal immune response to …

What is the pathophysiology of rheumatic fever?

What is the difference between rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease?

What is the pathophysiology of rheumatic heart disease?

Pathophysiology Rheumatic heart disease is the result of valvular damage caused by an abnormal immune response to Streptococcus pyogenesinfection, which is classified as a group A streptococcus that causes acute rheumatic fever.[6].

What is rheumatic heart disease (RHD)?

Rheumatic heart disease is a systemic immune process that is sequelae to a beta-hemolytic streptococcal infection of the pharynx. It is most common in developing countries. However, it is responsible for 250,000 deaths in young people worldwide each year. Over 15 million people have evidence of rheumatic heart disease.[1]

Etiology Rheumatic heart disease results from either single or repeated attacks of rheumatic fever that results in rigidity and deformity of valve cusps, the fusion of the commissures, or shortening and fusion of the chordae tendineae. Over 2 to 3 decades, valvular stenosis and/or regurgitation results.

Is rheumatic heart disease a common condition in India?

In India and other developing countries, rheumatic heart disease (RHD) continues to be a major public health problem and contributes to significant cardiac morbidity and mortality. RHD in the juvenile age group namely juvenile mitral stenosis is a variant which is unique to the Indian subcontinent.