Which plant is used for bioremediation?


Plants Contaminated areas Heavy Metals
Medicago sativa L. (alfalfa) Soil Cd
Oryza sativa L. (rice) Soil Cu, Cd
Pistia stratiotes L. (water lettuce) Water Cr, Cd, As
Pisum sativum L. (pea) Soil Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe, Cd, Ni,As, Cr

What plants clean the soil?

Familiar plants such as alfalfa, sunflower, corn, date palms, certain mustards, even willow and poplar trees can be used to reclaim contaminated soil – a cheap, clean and sustainable process.

What is an example of a bioremediation?

Some examples of bioremediation technologies are bioventing, landfarming, bioreactor, composting, bioaugmentation, rhizofiltration, and biostimulation. Not all contaminants, however, are easily treated by bioremediation using microorganisms.

Which of the bioremediation uses plants to remove pollutants?

Phytoremediation is a plant-based approach, which involves the use of plants to extract and remove elemental pollutants or lower their bioavailability in soil (Berti and Cunningham, 2000).

Why are plants used for bioremediation?

Plants use solar energy (through photosynthesis) to extract chemicals from the soil and to deposit them in the above-ground part of their bodies, or to convert them to a less toxic form. These plants can then be harvested and treated, removing the pollutants.

How do humans use plants for bioremediation?

Specific enzymes such as nitroreductases and dehalogenases are used by plants to degrade organic contaminants [132]. These enzymes must be used at optimal conditions of temperature and pH for efficient degradation of contaminants.

What removes toxins from soil?

Phytoremediation – Clean Up Soil with Plants Plants absorb and use nutrients from soil. This extends to the uptake of toxins in the soil, providing us with a useful, natural way to clean contaminated land.

Can plants absorb toxins?

Plants that clean the air absorb toxins (including VOCs) and bioeffulents (which are things that humans exhale, such as carbon dioxide and viruses) in the air through tiny pores on their leaves. Photosynthesis is the process by which plants absorb gases through their leaves.

What types of bacteria are used in bioremediation?

Below are several specific bacteria species known to participate in bioremediation.

  • Pseudomonas putida.
  • Dechloromonas aromatica.
  • Deinococcus radiodurans.
  • Methylibium petroleiphilum.
  • Alcanivorax borkumensis.
  • Phanerochaete chrysosporium.

How plants are useful for remediation of environment?

Also, growing tolerant plants reduces the water movement into the soil profile, thus limiting the leaching of soluble pollutants. Plants have also the ability to extract and accumulate non-essential trace elements in their tissues making it possible to removed metals from polluted environments.

How do plants break down toxins?

Hyperaccumulators trap and store contaminants in their cells (roots and plant tissue), and then they metabolize the toxic elements into less harmful molecules. These molecules either stay within the plant or they are released as gases through transpiration.

How can aquatic plants be used in bioremediation?

Aquatic plants can be used in bioremediation (Phytoremediation) especially to remediate sites contaminated with heavy metals. For example, water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) has been used for purifying not only domestic wastewater but also industrial wastewater.

What is bioremediation?

Bioremediation is a process that uses mainly microorganisms, plants, or microbial or plant enzymes to detoxify contaminants in the soil and other environments. M. Megharaj, R. Naidu, in Encyclopedia of Toxicology (Third Edition), 2014

Can bioremediation in soil be achieved in situ?

The conditions necessary for bioremediation in soil cannot always be achieved in situ, however. At some sites, the climate may be too cold for the microbes to be active, or the soil might be too dense to allow amendments to spread evenly underground.

What plants are used in phytoremediation?

Crop plants such as Indian mustard have been used to extract heavy metals from soil and translocate them to the leaves and stalks of plants (Raskin et al, 1994, Duchenkov et al 1995). A list of plants used in phytoremediation is given in Table 9.1.