Why are hot Jupiters unexpected in the solar nebula hypothesis?
*Hot Jupiters are jovian planets that are very close to their stars. Their discovery came as a surprise to scientists because in our solar system jovian planets are only found far from the Sun.
What theory explains hot Jupiters?
Theoretical research since 2000 suggested that “hot Jupiters” may cause increased flaring due to the interaction of the magnetic fields of the star and its orbiting exoplanet, or because of tidal forces between them. These effects are called “star-planet interactions” or SPIs.
How were hot Jupiters formed?
One of the leading theories of hot-Jupiter formation holds that gas giants in distant orbits become hot Jupiters when the gravitational influences from nearby stars or planets drive them into closer orbits.
What is the solar nebular theory?
solar nebula, gaseous cloud from which, in the so-called nebular hypothesis of the origin of the solar system, the Sun and planets formed by condensation. Swedish philosopher Emanuel Swedenborg in 1734 proposed that the planets formed out of a nebular crust that had surrounded the Sun and then broken apart.
How does the nebular theory explain hot Jupiters?
The nebular theory predicts that massive Jupiter-like planets should not form inside the frost line (at << 5 AU). The discovery of hot Jupiters has forced reexamination of nebular theory. Planetary migration or gravitational encounters may explain hot Jupiters.
Why was it so surprising to find hot Jupiters?
It’s easier to find hot Jupiters than smaller planets this way because they block more of the star’s light. And if they are close to the star they transit more frequently in a given period of time, so we’re more likely to detect them. In the 1990s, many of the exoplanets astronomers discovered were hot Jupiters.
Are hot Jupiters in our solar system?
Of the 4,000+ exoplanets known so far – planets orbiting distant stars in our Milky Way galaxy – several hundred are hot Jupiters. The new guide for scientists combines observations from the Hubble Space Telescope and theoretical models.
How does the nebular hypothesis explain hot Jupiters?
Why are hot Jupiters important?
These systems, these stars and their hot Jupiters, are too far away to resolve the individual star and its planet. All we can see is a point, the combined light source of the two. So measuring spectra from hot Jupiters is a feat unto itself. And it’s an important tool for astronomers who want to study these worlds.
How was the solar system formed nebular theory?
The nebular theory states that our solar system formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant interstellar gas cloud—the solar nebula. – (Nebula is the Latin word for cloud.) Kant and Laplace proposed the nebular hypothesis over two centuries ago. A large amount of evidence now supports this idea.
What are the steps of the solar nebula theory?
Terms in this set (5)
- step one(4) -The solar nebula consisted of. -hydrogen,
- step two(2) -A disturbance.
- step three(2) -The solar nebula assumed a flat, disk shape.
- step four(2) -Inner planets began to form from metallic.
- step five(2) -Larger outer planets began forming from fragments.
How did hot Jupiters get so close to their stars?
The inner planet’s orbit gradually shrinks because energy is dissipated through tides, pulling in close to the star and producing a hot Jupiter. In the process, the orbit of the planet can flip.
What is the nebular theory?
This states that the solar system developed out of an interstellar cloud of dust and gas, called a nebula . This theory best accounts for the objects we currently find in the Solar System and the distribution of these objects.The Nebular Theory would have started with a cloud of gas and dust, most likely left over from a previous supernova.
What was the first known theoretical prediction about the existence of hot Jupiters?
Archived from the original on 18 June 2013. Struve, O. (1952). “First known theoretical prediction regarding existence of hot Jupiters by Otto Struve in 1952”. The Observatory. 72: 199.
How does a hot jupiter form?
The Spitzer study suggests that competing theories for hot Jupiter formation — in which gas giants form “in situ,” or close to their stars, or smoothly spiral inward with the help of planet-forming disks — may be preferred. The new study is also the first to measure the rotation rate of an exoplanet orbiting a sun-like star.
Why do hot Jupiters have obliquities?
This misalignment may be related to the heat of the photosphere the hot Jupiter is orbiting. There are many proposed theories as to why this might occur. One such theory involves tidal dissipation and suggests there is a single mechanism for producing hot Jupiters and this mechanism yields a range of obliquities.