What are the prognostic indicators in multiple myeloma?
Several important prognostic factors identify patients with poor outcomes: serum beta2-microglobulin (β2M), bone marrow plasma cell labeling index (PCLI), cytogenetics, plasmablastic morphology, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and C-reactive protein (CRP).
What is the prognosis for basal cell carcinoma?
The prognosis for patients with BCC is excellent, with a 100% survival rate for cases that have not spread to other sites. Nevertheless, if BCC is allowed to progress, it can result in significant morbidity, and cosmetic disfigurement is not uncommon.
Can multiple myeloma cause skin cancer?
Immunosuppressed patients are known to have an increased incidence of skin cancer. Patients with multiple myeloma (MM) show impaired immune function. In the past, because of poor survival, the incidence of specific secondary primary malignancies such as skin cancer among these patients was difficult to establish.
What is the prognosis for stage 3 multiple myeloma?
Life Expectancy With Stage III Multiple Myeloma Current research puts the 5-year survival rate for stage III multiple myeloma at about 53%. However, there are various factors other than stage that can influence your chance of survival. These include: Kidney function.
What is the prognosis for high-risk multiple myeloma?
The progression-free survival estimate for this group is less than 3 years; the median is less than 5 years. According to Bertamini, the number of patients with high-risk MM are not insignificant, and efforts should be made to identify these patients earlier in order to provide them with more specified, targeted care.
What are the risk factors of basal cell carcinoma?
Several risk factors make a person more likely to get basal cell or squamous cell skin cancer.
- Ultraviolet (UV) light exposure.
- Having light-colored skin.
- Being older.
- Being male.
- Exposure to certain chemicals.
- Radiation exposure.
- Previous skin cancer.
- Long-term or severe skin inflammation or injury.
Who is most susceptible to basal cell carcinoma?
Basal cell carcinoma affects slightly more men than women. It occurs more often in older people. People with fair skin and light eyes are more likely to get BCC. It is 19 times more common in whites than blacks, but people of color may still be affected.
Can multiple myeloma spread to skin?
Multiple myeloma metastatic to the skin is a rare occurrence that usually reflects a high tumour burden. Here, we report the case of a woman with known multiple myeloma who developed cutaneous lesions on the right leg. Limited-field radiation treatment was successfully used to decrease her tumour bulk.
Is basal cell carcinoma malignant?
The vast majority of skin cancers are basal cell carcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas. While malignant, these are unlikely to spread to other parts of the body if treated early. They may be locally disfiguring if not treated early.
Is there a stage 4 multiple myeloma?
Multiple myeloma is considered treatable but is generally incurable and hence may be called chronic. There are 4 stages.
What is the last stage of multiple myeloma?
In multiple myeloma cases, stage 3 is the terminal stage. This means it’s the most advanced stage of this type of rare cancer. Doctors use the international staging system to determine the stage of the cancer. This system is based on the levels of serum beta-2 microglobulin and serum albumin.
What factors affect the prognosis of multiple myeloma?
But other factors, such as the tumor’s cytogenetics (chromosome changes), the levels of certain proteins and other substances in the blood, your kidney function, your age and overall health, can also affect your outlook. People now being diagnosed with myeloma may have a better outlook than these numbers show.
What is the prognosis of basal cell carcinoma without high-risk features?
Patients with basal cell carcinoma without high-risk features can be reassured that the prognosis is generally excellent. When a patient has a basal cell carcinoma that is larger than 2cm, is on the face, or has recurred after a previous treatment, the clinician should explain that there is a risk of recurrence or spread.
What are the risk factors for recurrence of basal cell carcinoma?
However, those with a high risk of are recurrence are micronodular, infiltrating, sclerosing/morphoeic and basosquamous BCCs, and BCCs with sarcomatoid differentiation.
What is basal cell carcinoma with sarcomatoid differentiation ( metaplastic carcinoma)?
BCC with sarcomatoid differentiation (metaplastic carcinoma) is characterized by a malignant proliferation of basaloid cells found within a sarcomatous stroma with variable histology.