## What is NPQ in photosynthesis?

Nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ) is a process in which excess absorbed light energy is dissipated into heat. This process takes place in the photosynthetic membranes of plants, algae, and cyanobacteria (Demmig-Adams et al., 2014).

Which pigment is involved in non photochemical quenching?

It involves the quenching of singlet excited state chlorophylls (Chl) via enhanced internal conversion to the ground state (non-radiative decay), thus harmlessly dissipating excess excitation energy as heat through molecular vibrations.

What do the photoprotective mechanisms that plants have evolved protect them against?

Photoprotection is the biochemical process that helps organisms cope with molecular damage caused by sunlight. Plants and other oxygenic phototrophs have developed a suite of photoprotective mechanisms to prevent photoinhibition and oxidative stress caused by excess or fluctuating light conditions.

### What does NPQ stand for in statistics?

n. , n. p= the probability of a success for any trial. q= the probability of a failure for any trial.

What is photoprotective effect?

Photoprotection is indicated for the reduction of ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin damage and skin cancers. Photoprotection includes sunscreens, clothing, hats, makeup, sunglasses, and windshields. The damaging effects of UV radiation include photoaging and photocarcinogenesis.

What are photoprotective agents?

In recent years, there has been much interest in the use of oral and topical antioxidants as photoprotective agents. These antioxidants work against the harmful effects of UV radiation via a number of ways that may include: Scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are harmful to the body.

#### Is Npq standard deviation?

Var(S) = nVar(X) = npq. Taking the square root, we see that the standard deviation of that binomial distribution is √ npq. That gives us the important observation that the spread of a binomial distribution is proportional to the square root of n, the number of trials.

How do you calculate NP and NQ?

np = 20 × 0.5 = 10 and nq = 20 × 0.5 = 10….Navigation.

For large values of n with p close to 0.5 the normal distribution approximates the binomial distribution
Test np ≥ 5 nq ≥ 5
New parameters μ = np σ = √(npq)