## What is NPQ in photosynthesis?

Nonphotochemical chlorophyll fluorescence quenching (NPQ) is a process in which excess absorbed light energy is dissipated into heat. This process takes place in the photosynthetic membranes of plants, algae, and cyanobacteria (Demmig-Adams et al., 2014).

**Which pigment is involved in non photochemical quenching?**

It involves the quenching of singlet excited state chlorophylls (Chl) via enhanced internal conversion to the ground state (non-radiative decay), thus harmlessly dissipating excess excitation energy as heat through molecular vibrations.

**What do the photoprotective mechanisms that plants have evolved protect them against?**

Photoprotection is the biochemical process that helps organisms cope with molecular damage caused by sunlight. Plants and other oxygenic phototrophs have developed a suite of photoprotective mechanisms to prevent photoinhibition and oxidative stress caused by excess or fluctuating light conditions.

### What does NPQ stand for in statistics?

n. , n. p= the probability of a success for any trial. q= the probability of a failure for any trial.

**What is photoprotective effect?**

Photoprotection is indicated for the reduction of ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced skin damage and skin cancers. Photoprotection includes sunscreens, clothing, hats, makeup, sunglasses, and windshields. The damaging effects of UV radiation include photoaging and photocarcinogenesis.

**What are photoprotective agents?**

In recent years, there has been much interest in the use of oral and topical antioxidants as photoprotective agents. These antioxidants work against the harmful effects of UV radiation via a number of ways that may include: Scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species (ROS) that are harmful to the body.

#### Is Npq standard deviation?

Var(S) = nVar(X) = npq. Taking the square root, we see that the standard deviation of that binomial distribution is √ npq. That gives us the important observation that the spread of a binomial distribution is proportional to the square root of n, the number of trials.

**How do you calculate NP and NQ?**

np = 20 × 0.5 = 10 and nq = 20 × 0.5 = 10….Navigation.

For large values of n with p close to 0.5 the normal distribution approximates the binomial distribution | |
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Test | np ≥ 5 nq ≥ 5 |

New parameters | μ = np σ = √(npq) |