What is RML syndrome?

Right middle lobe syndrome (RMLS) generally refers to chronic or recurrent atelectasis in the right middle lobe of the lung. First described in the medical literature in 1948, it is caused by various etiologies and has no consistent clinical definition.

Which causes middle lobe syndrome?

Nonobstructive middle lobe syndrome is usually due to transient hypoventilation in the setting of chronic inflammatory and infectious changes (in conditions like cystic fibrosis) due to a wide array of infections, pulmonary infarcts, bronchopulmonary cysts, or disease processes that predispose to bronchiectasis.[10][9]

What is right middle lobe fibrosis?

Summary: Right middle lobe (RML) syndrome is defined as recurrent or chronic obstruction or infection of the middle lobe of the right lung. Nonobstructive causes of middle lobe syndrome include inflammatory processes and defects in the bronchial anatomy and collateral ventilation.

What causes Lady Windermere Syndrome?

Lady Windermere syndrome (LWS), a unique subtype of M. avium pulmonary disease, is associated with bronchiectasis, but it is unknown whether bronchiectasis precedes M. avium infection or is a result of infection.

How do you treat a right middle lobe collapse?

Chest physical therapy and postural drainage are the hallmarks of therapy. They may be combined with mucolytics such as nebulized sodium chloride (3% or 7%, based on the patient’s age and tolerance), and or dornase alpha to help optimize airway clearance.

What are the symptoms of MAC?

MAC infection is a serious condition that can cause damage to the lungs. MAC infection is not contagious. Common signs and symptoms of MAC lung disease include fatigue, chronic cough, shortness of breath, night sweats, coughing up blood and weight loss.

What is right middle lobe syndrome (MLS)?

Right middle lobe syndrome refers to chronic right middle lobe collapse, usually without an obstructing lesion (but not always). It is usually with associated bronchiectasis.   Epidemiology Right middle lobe syndrome is usually encountered in ol…

What is the pathophysiology of middle lobe syndrome?

Though there has been no established definition of middle lobe syndrome, it has been recognized to involve two fundamentally different pathophysiological pathways that lead to recurrent middle lobe atelectasis: obstructive and nonobstructive. Copyright © 2021, StatPearls Publishing LLC.

What causes non obstructive middle lobe syndrome (MLS)?

non obstructive middle lobe syndrome The underlying etiology of right middle lobe syndrome remains poorly understood, but poor collateral ventilation, a relatively narrow ostium, and infection/inflammation are all thought to play a role 3. The histological processes identified in such cases include 1: 

Why is the right middle lobe of the lungs susceptible to edema?

Certain anatomical characteristics make the right middle lobe susceptible to transient obstruction as a result of inflammation or edema. The narrow diameter of the lobar bronchus and acute take-off angle create poor conditions for drainage.