What is the function of raphe nuclei?

The raphe nucleus is considered to be part of the reticular formation and is located in the brainstem. It is responsible for the release of serotonin to other parts of the brain. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) drugs, for example, are thought to act on the raphe nucleus.

What brain structures are involved in REM sleep?

The brain stem (especially the pons and medulla) also plays a special role in REM sleep; it sends signals to relax muscles essential for body posture and limb movements, so that we don’t act out our dreams.

What neurons initiate REM sleep?

Rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep results from the interaction of brain stem cholinergic, aminergic, and GABAergic neurons which control the activity of glutamatergic reticular formation neurons leading to REM sleep phenomena such as muscle atonia, REMs, dreaming, and cortical activation.

What would happen when the raphe nuclei is stimulated?

Stimulation of the raphe nuclei leads to a widespread release of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) throughout the forebrain (see Fig. 3.2). This potentiates a marked increase in the startle response which does not habituate.

Does serotonin affect sleep?

Serotonin is also involved in preventing rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Studies have shown that increasing serotonin through the use of SSRIs reduces REM sleep. While serotonin seems to both induce sleep and keep you up, it’s a chemical precursor to melatonin, the main hormone involved in sleep.

Is dopamine found in raphe nuclei?

Anatomical and physiological evidence also revealed that the dorsal raphé nucleus (DRN), a major source of serotonin, and the dopamine system receive common inputs from brain regions associated with appetitive and aversive information processing.

What happens during REM sleep?

During REM sleep, your eyes move around rapidly in a range of directions, but don’t send any visual information to your brain. That doesn’t happen during non-REM sleep. First comes non-REM sleep, followed by a shorter period of REM sleep, and then the cycle starts over again. Dreams typically happen during REM sleep.

What happens to your brain during REM sleep?

In REM sleep, your brain waves and eye movements increase. Your heart rate and breathing also speed up. Dreaming often happens during REM sleep. Your brain also processes information during this stage, making it important for learning and memory.

What triggers REM sleep?

REM may be a spontaneously triggered state that occurs when the brain has had enough slow-wave sleep (SWS).

How is REM sleep produced?

Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep is generated and maintained by the interaction of a variety of neurotransmitter systems in the brainstem, forebrain, and hypothalamus. Within these circuits lies a core region that is active during REM sleep, known as the subcoeruleus nucleus (SubC) or sublaterodorsal nucleus.

Does serotonin affect REM sleep?

Overall, serotonin promotes the wake state and inhibits REM sleep. The cholinergic neurons in the pons are under the inhibitory control of brainstem serotonergic and noradrenergic neurons and they trigger REM sleep by activating the glutamatergic sublaterodorsal nucleus.

Is melatonin and serotonin the same?

Serotonin is a biosynthetic precursor of melatonin and a potent neurotransmitter, whose levels are correlated to many processes and disease states including neurological disorders such as drug addiction, depression, and migraines.