Where is HMG-CoA synthesized?

The cytosolic or cholesterogenic isozyme provides the HMG-CoA destined for isoprenoid biogenesis, a process that occurs in the cytosol. Linkage analysis revealed that the mouse genes that encode the cytosolic and mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthases are located on different chromosomes.

What do HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors do?

A substance that blocks an enzyme needed by the body to make cholesterol and lowers the amount of cholesterol in the blood. HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor drugs are called statins.

Is HMG-CoA synthase the same as HMG-CoA reductase?

HMG-CoA is the precursor for cholesterol synthesis. HMG-CoA is formed by condensation of acetyl-CoA and acetoacetyl-CoA, catalyzed by HMG-CoA synthase. HMG-CoA reductase catalyzes the production of mevalonate from HMG-CoA, in which the HMG-CoA reductase reaction is the rate-limiting step for cholesterol synthesis.

Why is HMG-CoA reductase important?

Cholesterol Precursors. HMG-CoA reductase is the rate-limiting enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis. The expression level of this membrane-bound enzyme is controlled by many factors that in turn regulate cholesterol synthesis and cellular cholesterol homeostasis (reviewed in [1]).

What is the significance of HMG-CoA?

What happens when you inhibit HMG-CoA reductase?

Inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase, a rate-limiting enzyme in hepatic cholesterol synthesis by statins, results in the reduction of intracellular cholesterol content that in turn induces an increase in SREBP-2-mediated hepatic LDL receptor synthesis (Sahebkar and Watts, 2013b) (Chapter 11).

What is the most serious side effect of all HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors?

Rare but potentially serious side effects of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors include: Myositis (inflammation of the muscles) Elevated levels of creatine phosphokinase or creatine kinase, a muscle enzyme that when elevated can cause muscle pain, mild inflammation, and muscle weakness.