What are the 5 types of sociopolitical organizations?


  • foragers (hunter-gatherer): band society.
  • horticulture: tribe.
  • pastoralism: chiefdom.
  • agriculture: state.

What are bands tribes chiefdoms and states?

The cultural anthropologist Elman Service devised a model in 1962 for classifying human societies into four general categories—bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states—based on their capacity to support larger populations at higher densities.

What distinguishes tribal from political organization?

A band is the smallest unit of political organization, consisting of only a few families and no formal leadership positions. Tribes have larger populations but are organized around family ties and have fluid or shifting systems of temporary leadership.

What are the four main types of societies according to the classification system of Elman Service?

In 1962, Elman Service got published his defined four classifications of the stages of social evolution which are also the four levels of political organizations: band, tribe, chiefdom, and state.

What is band tribe and chiefdom?

Usually larger than bands, tribes will often employ some form of agriculture; however, they are usually still egalitarian in nature. A chiefdom is a political unit headed by a chief, who holds power over more than one community group.

What is the two types of chiefdoms?

A complex chiefdom is a group of simple chiefdoms controlled by a single paramount center and ruled by a paramount chief. Complex chiefdoms have two or even three tiers of political hierarchy. Nobles are clearly distinct from commoners and do not usually engage in any form of agricultural production.

Who is the head of chiefdom?

Each chiefdom is an autonomous, territorial, as well as socio-political unit headed by a paramount chief who is traditionally chosen from one of the ruling houses, that is one of the descent groups whose ancestors are reputed to have founded the chiefdom.

What is tribe in political organization?

A tribe is a combination of smaller kin or non-kin groups, linked by a common culture, that usually act as one. Usually larger than bands, tribes will often employ some form of agriculture; however, they are usually still egalitarian in nature.

What are the four levels of socio cultural integration?

Elman Service (1975) developed an influential scheme for categorizing the political character of societies that recognized four levels of socio-cultural integration: band, tribe, chiefdom, and state.

What are the different types of government systems?

Five Types of Government Systems

  • Democracy. A democracy can be defined as a government system with supreme power placed in the hands of the people.
  • Republic.
  • Monarchy.
  • Communism.
  • Dictatorship.