What do T cells do in atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, and accumulating evidence supports the critical role of T cells as drivers and modifiers of this condition. T cells drive immune responses to peptide epitopes related to atherosclerosis, such as peptides derived from apolipoprotein B.

What cell causes atherosclerosis?

Being the most abundant cell type in atherosclerotic plaques, macrophages have a strong effect on plaque development and progression due to its overwhelming influence on intra-plaque cholesterol homeostasis, inflammation, necrotic core initiation, and extracellular matrix degradation[37].

What is vascular smooth muscle?

Vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) constitute the major cells in the media layer of arteries, and are critical to maintain the integrity of the arterial wall. They participate in arterial wall remodeling, and play important roles in atherosclerosis throughout all stages of the disease.

What is atherosclerosis Google Scholar?

[Google Scholar]]. From pathological perspectives, atherosclerosis has been defined as a chronic arterial inflammation secondary to prolonged exposure to oxidative stressors and involves multiple cell types and cellular mediators [3. Dyslipidemia part 1—review of lipid metabolism and vascular cell physiology.

What causes inflammation in atherosclerosis?

The chronic inflammatory process involving the arterial endothelium that ultimately results in the complications of atherosclerosis may be caused by a response to the oxidative components of modified low-density lipoprotein (LDL), or to chronic infection, free radicals, or other factors.

What happens to smooth muscle cells during atherosclerosis?

Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) play a key role in fibrous cap formation and plaque stability in advanced atherosclerosis; however, less is known about the role of SMCs in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. This review summarizes the present data implicating SMCs in the development of early atherogenesis.

What is a primary consequence of increased sympathetic stimulation to vascular smooth muscle?

Alpha-1 and alpha-2 receptors function to cause vasoconstriction by contracting vascular smooth muscle cells leading to systemic hypertension. Beta-2 receptors also respond to sympathetic stimulation but produce a vasodilatory effect and which will lead to systemic hypotension.

What is the root cause of atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is thickening or hardening of the arteries caused by a buildup of plaque in the inner lining of an artery. Risk factors may include high cholesterol and triglyceride levels, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, obesity, physical activity, and eating saturated fats.

How does atherosclerosis happen?

Atherosclerosis is sometimes called “hardening of the arteries”. This condition occurs when fatty substances called plaque buildup inside the artery walls. Cholesterol is the main fatty substance in plaque. This fatty buildup can cause partial or complete blockage of blood flow through an artery.

What happens when you have atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is the buildup of fats, cholesterol and other substances in and on your artery walls. This buildup is called plaque. The plaque can cause your arteries to narrow, blocking blood flow. The plaque can also burst, leading to a blood clot.

What is the role of T cells in atherosclerosis?

Among CD4+T cells, Th1 cells are pro-atherogenic, Tregcells are athero-protective and the role of Th2 and Th17 cells remains unclear. The role of follicular helper T cells in atherosclerosis remains unknown, as is the role of CD8+T cells. NKT cells bind glycolipid antigens and exert a pro-atherogenic role.

What are the new approaches to the treatment of atherosclerosis?

Another exciting approach for treatment of atherosclerosis is Treg therapy, based on a phenomenon known as “infectious tolerance” [126]. The principle is that the anti-inflammatory and tolerogenic effects of Tregs promote the differentiation of recipient T cells into new Tregs, even after the transferred Tregs are eliminated.

What is the role of follicular helper T cells in atherosclerosis?

The role of follicular helper T cells in atherosclerosis remains unknown, as is the role of CD8+T cells. NKT cells bind glycolipid antigens and exert a pro-atherogenic role. The antigen specificity of T-cell responses in atherosclerosis is poorly understood.

Do T-lymphocytes play a role in atherosclerosis?

Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the artery wall. Atherosclerotic lesions contain monocytes, macrophages, smooth muscle cells and T lymphocytes. Here, we review the role of T-lymphocyte subsets in atherosclerosis.