## What does topological mean in biology?

The topology is the branching structure of the tree. It is of particular biological significance because it indicates patterns of relatedness among taxa, meaning that trees with the same topology and root have the same biological interpretation.

What is topology in molecular biology?

The nature of the supercoiling of a double-stranded DNA molecule; also, in protein chemistry, a formalized array of secondary structures within a molecule. (

How is topology used in biology?

Biology. Topology has been used to study various biological systems including molecules and nanostructure (e.g., membraneous objects). In particular, circuit topology and knot theory have been extensively applied to classify and compare the topology of folded proteins and nucleic acids.

### What is a topology simple definition?

Topology is the mathematical study of the properties that are preserved through deformations, twistings, and stretchings of objects. Tearing, however, is not allowed. A circle is topologically equivalent to an ellipse (into which it can be deformed by stretching) and a sphere is equivalent to an ellipsoid.

What is topology in ecology?

In ecology, topology is the study of patterns of interconnections in a network system, and specifically called ecological topology.

What is topology of membrane proteins?

The topology of an integral membrane protein describes the number and approximate locations in the sequence of the transmembrane segments, as well as the overall orientation of the protein in a membrane.

#### What is the meaning of DNA topology?

DNA topology refers to the superhelical structures or tangles in a DNA double helix. There are generally two forms of DNA, linear DNA and closed circular DNA. In the case of linear DNA, untangling is possible due to the free rotation of the ends of the DNA.

What is nucleic acid topology?

Topology. Double-stranded nucleic acids are made up of complementary sequences, in which extensive Watson-Crick base pairing results in a highly repeated and quite uniform Nucleic acid double-helical three-dimensional structure.

What is meant by DNA topology?

Introduction. The topology of DNA, which is defined by how the two complementary single strands are intertwined, has been an important consideration since the double helical structure of DNA was first proposed by Watson and Crick in 1953 (1).

## What is topology and examples?

Topology studies properties of spaces that are invariant under any continuous deformation. It is sometimes called “rubber-sheet geometry” because the objects can be stretched and contracted like rubber, but cannot be broken. For example, a square can be deformed into a circle without breaking it, but a figure 8 cannot.

What is the best way to describe topology?

The configuration, or topology, of a network is key to determining its performance. Network topology is the way a network is arranged, including the physical or logical description of how links and nodes are set up to relate to each other.

How do you describe a protein topology?

The topology of a protein structure is a highly simplified description of its fold including only the sequence of secondary structure elements, and their relative spatial positions and approximate orientations. This information can be embodied in a two-dimensional diagram of protein topology, called a TOPS cartoon.

### What is topological order in quantum physics?

So topological order opens up a new direction in condensed matter physics—a new direction of highly entangled quantum matter. We realize that quantum phases of matter (i.e. the zero-temperature phases of matter) can be divided into two classes: long range entangled states and short range entangled states.

What is the best way to characterize topological orders?

The most important characterization of topological orders would be the underlying fractionalized excitations (such as anyons) and their fusion statistics and braiding statistics (which can go beyond the quantum statistics of bosons or fermions ).

What is the meaning of topology?

1 : of or relating to topology 2 : being or involving properties unaltered under a homeomorphism continuity and connectedness are topological properties Other Words from topological topologically ˌtä-​pə-​ˈlä-​ji-​k (ə-​)lē

#### How to classify 2+1D topological order?

It was found that a subclass of 2+1D topological orders—Abelian topological orders—can be classified by a K-matrix approach. The string-net condensation suggests that tensor category (such as fusion category or monoidal category) is part of the mathematical foundation of topological order in 2+1D.