What is SST in El Niño?
El Niño (La Niña) is a phenomenon in the equatorial Pacific Ocean characterized by a five consecutive 3-month running mean of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies in the Niño 3.4 region that is above (below) the threshold of +0.5°C (-0.5°C). This standard of measure is known as the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI).
What were the impacts of the 1982 1983 El Niño on California coastal marine ecosystems?
According to the USGS Science for a Changing World report on the 1982-83 El Nino Coastal Erosion: San Mateo Cty., CA (by Kenneth R. Lajoie and Scott A. Mathieson), San Mateo County suffered heavy surf, severe beach erosion, and major damage to roads and coastline due to landslides and wave action.
What unusual pattern happens in El Niño?
El Niño is a weather pattern that occurs in the Pacific Ocean. During this time, unusual winds cause warm surface water from the equator to move east, toward Central and South America. El Niño can cause more rain than usual in South and Central America and in the United States.
What are examples of the results of the El Niño phenomenon?
For example, in the Southern United States, during the fall through spring, El Niño usually causes increased rainfall and sometimes destructive flooding. La Niña, however, usually causes drier weather in the South, but the Northwest tends to be colder and wetter than average.
What is a SST anomaly?
What is an “SST Anomaly”? Sea Surface Temperature anomalies in degrees Celsius, or “SST anomalies” for short, are how much temperatures depart from what is normal for that time of year. This makes sense; we might say that we had a “warm winter” even though it was still much colder than summer.
What disaster happened in 1982?
The 1982-1983 El Niño was the strongest and most devastating of the century, perhaps the worst in recorded history. During that period, trade winds not only collapsed–they reversed.
What causes the El Niño phenomenon?
El Niño occurs when warm water builds up along the equator in the eastern Pacific. The warm ocean surface warms the atmosphere, which allows moisture-rich air to rise and develop into rainstorms. The clearest example of El Niño in this series of images is 1997.
What comes after an El Niño What are of the characteristics of this phase?
El Niño is often (but not always) followed by La Niña the following year, particularly if the El Niño is strong. During La Niña conditions, the easterly trade winds near the equator get even stronger than they usually are. Stronger winds push surface water into the western Pacific.
What are 2 effects of El Niño?
Severe drought and associated food insecurity, flooding, rains, and temperature rises due to El Niño are causing a wide range of health problems, including disease outbreaks, malnutrition, heat stress and respiratory diseases.
What are the bad and good effects of El Niño and La Niña phenomena?
Overall, El Niño contributes to more eastern and central Pacific hurricanes and fewer Atlantic hurricanes while, conversely, La Niña contributes to fewer eastern and central Pacific hurricanes and more Atlantic hurricanes..