Why does exophthalmos occur in hyperthyroidism?
Causes of exophthalmos Graves’ disease is an autoimmune condition, which is where the immune system mistakenly attacks healthy tissue. In the case of thyroid eye disease, the immune system attacks the muscles and fatty tissues around and behind the eye, making them swollen.
What is stellwag’s sign?
[ stĕl′wăgz′, shtĕl′väks′ ] n. An indication of Graves disease in which there is infrequent and incomplete blinking of the eye.
What is the difference between proptosis and exophthalmos?
Proptosis can describe any organ that is displaced forward, while exophthalmos refers to only the eyes. Proptosis can include any directional forward displacement. Henderson reserves the use of the word exophthalmos for those cases of proptosis secondary to endocrinological dysfunction.
What causes exophthalmos eyes?
In adults, the most common cause of unilateral and bilateral exophthalmos is thyroid-associated eye disease, such as Graves-related ophthalmopathy. In children, orbital cellulitis is the most common cause, whereas bilateral exophthalmos is most likely due to neuroblastoma and leukemia.
Is exophthalmos specific for Graves?
Share on Pinterest Exophthalmos is a symptom of Graves’ disease. Graves’ disease is the most common cause of exophthalmos. Anywhere from 25-50 percent of people with this condition will have an eye involvement.
What is unilateral exophthalmos?
Unilateral exophthalmus, although frequently seen in connection with thyroid diseases, has a much larger differential diagnosis than bilateral exophthalmus. With unilateral presentation one should think of orbital pseudotumour, orbital cellulitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, or intraorbital neoplasms.
What is von Graefe’s sign?
Von Graefe’s sign. Von Graefe’s sign is the lagging of the upper eyelid on downward rotation of the eye, indicating exophthalmic goiter (Graves’ Disease).
What is pseudo Graefe’s sign?
A pseudo Graefe’s sign (pseudo lid lag) shows a similar lag, but is due to aberrant regeneration of fibres of the oculomotor nerve (III) into the elevator of the upper lid. It occurs in paramyotonia congenita.
What is the etiology of Möbius syndrome?
The etiology of Möbius syndrome remains controversial, but it appears to be multifactorial. Most investigators agree that in a subset of patients, the condition is predetermined genetically (approximately 2% of cases appear to have a genetic basis).However, most cases are sporadic.
What is the life expectancy of someone with Möbius syndrome?
In severe cases, death may occur in the perinatal period, often as a result of respiratory or bulbar problems. Life expectancy may be normal in patients with less extensive brainstem involvement. In a British study, 8 of 29 patients with Möbius syndrome died over the course of 18 years.