Where do transcription and translation occur in prokaryotic cells?
Prokaryotic transcription occurs in the cytoplasm alongside translation. Prokaryotic transcription and translation can occur simultaneously. This is impossible in eukaryotes, where transcription occurs in a membrane-bound nucleus while translation occurs outside the nucleus in the cytoplasm.
How does transcription differ in prokaryotes and eukaryotes?
The prokaryotic process of transcription takes place in the cytoplasm. There is no nucleus in it, whereas in eukaryotic, the process takes place in the nucleus. The process between transcription and protein synthesis are coupled in prokaryotic, whereas in eukaryotic, transcription and protein synthesis are not coupled.
How is transcription terminated in prokaryotes?
Transcription termination in prokaryotes can be rho-independent (intrinsic terminators exist in the RNA polymerase) and rho-dependent, i.e., the RNA polymerase requires the cofactor rho for termination of transcription. The terminator regions in various systems have similar structures.
Where does transcription occur in eukaryotes?
The eukaryotic nucleus therefore provides a distinct compartment within the cell, allowing transcription and splicing to proceed prior to the beginning of translation. Thus, in eukaryotes, while transcription occurs in the nucleus, translation occurs in the cytoplasm.
How does transcription occur in eukaryotes?
Eukaryotic transcription occurs within the nucleus where DNA is packaged into nucleosomes and higher order chromatin structures. The complexity of the eukaryotic genome necessitates a great variety and complexity of gene expression control.
How a gene is transcribed in the prokaryotic cell?
Transcription in prokaryotes (as in eukaryotes) requires the DNA double helix to partially unwind in the region of RNA synthesis. The region of unwinding is called a transcription bubble. Transcription always proceeds from the same DNA strand for each gene, which is called the template strand.
How does transcription work in prokaryotes?
Transcription in prokaryotes (and in eukaryotes) requires the DNA double helix to partially unwind in the region of mRNA synthesis. The region of unwinding is called a transcription bubble. The DNA sequence onto which the proteins and enzymes involved in transcription bind to initiate the process is called a promoter.
How does transcription stop in eukaryotes?
The termination of transcription is different for the different polymerases. Unlike in prokaryotes, elongation by RNA polymerase II in eukaryotes takes place 1,000–2,000 nucleotides beyond the end of the gene being transcribed. This pre-mRNA tail is subsequently removed by cleavage during mRNA processing.
Why is transcription and translation coupled in prokaryotes?
The lack of a nuclear membrane that physically separates the chromosomal DNA from the cytosolic environment led to the well-accepted notion that transcription and translation are spatiotemporally coupled in bacteria and archaea.
Why is transcription in eukaryotes more complex than in prokaryotes?
Eukaryotic gene expression is more complex than prokaryotic gene expression because the processes of transcription and translation are physically separated. Unlike prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells can regulate gene expression at many different levels.