How can you tell the difference between ependymoma and medulloblastoma?
Ependymoma patients were younger than medulloblastoma patients and more were female. There were no significant differences in the clinical findings, but ependymomas were larger and had greater rates of enhancement and spinal metastasis compared with medulloblastomas.
Where does ependymoma arise from?
Ependymomas can form anywhere in the CNS. Ependymomas often occur near the ventricles in the brain and the central canal of the spinal cord. On rare occasions, ependymomas can form outside the CNS, such as in the ovaries. Ependymomas develop from ependymal cells (called radial glial cells).
What are Homer Wright rosettes?
Homer Wright rosettes are differentiated tumor cells grouped around a central region containing neuropil (therefore its association with tumors of neuronal origin).
How does ependymoma affect the body?
Ependymoma can occur at any age, but most often occurs in young children. Children with ependymoma may experience headaches and seizures. Ependymoma that occurs in adults is more likely to form in the spinal cord and may cause weakness in the part of the body controlled by the nerves that are affected by the tumor.
What is Sonic Hedgehog medulloblastoma?
Medulloblastoma (MB) is a highly malignant cerebellar tumor predominantly diagnosed during childhood. Driven by pathogenic activation of sonic hedgehog (SHH) signaling, SHH subgroup MB (SHH-MB) accounts for nearly one-third of diagnoses.
What is the foramen of Luschka?
The foramen of Luschka is formed by the tela choroidea and the rhomboid lip and exists at the lateral end of the cerebellomedullary fissure, which is a natural cleavage plane between the cerebellar tonsil and the medulla.
What is the classic MRI appearance of posterior fossa ependymoma?
Classic MRI appearance of posterior fossa ependymoma in a 2-year-old child. Fourth ventricular mass demonstrates alow T1 signal intensity, bpredominantly solid enhancement on postgadolinium T1-weighted images, and cheterogeneous T2 hyperintensity.
How is the spread of ependymoma diagnosed?
Evidence of spread of ependymoma cells into the CSF is a key factor in staging, prognosis, and treatment . Subarachnoid spread of disease can be detected by MRI (Fig. 9) or by CSF cytologic studies.
What are the imaging features of ependymoma of the brain?
The imaging features of intracranial and spinal ependymoma are reviewed with an emphasis on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), perfusion MRI and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and computed tomography. Imaging manifestations of leptomeningeal dissemination of disease are described.