What are the long term effects of overdosing on antidepressants?

Usually, common antidepressant overdose side effects include: Nausea and/or vomiting. Dilated pupils. Vision problems.

What is a possible side effect of an overdose of a tricyclic antidepressant?

The most common clinical features are dry mouth, blurred vision, dilated pupils, sinus tachycardia, pyramidal neurological signs, and drowsiness. In severe poisoning, there may be coma, convulsions, respiratory depression, hypotension and a wide range of electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities.

Is TCA overdose lethal?

Tricyclic antidepressants (TCA) are one of the common causes of a fatal drug overdose. They have a narrow therapeutic window so can be fatal at relatively lower doses and single tablet fatalities have been reported. Its most serious effects are cardiovascular and CNS instability.

How do you reverse a TCA overdose?

Administration of sodium bicarbonate might be beneficial for patients with severe or life-threatening TCA toxicity if a prehospital protocol exists for its use (Grades B/D).

Is serotonin syndrome lethal?

If medical treatment is not sought when serotonin levels get too high, severe serotonin syndrome can lead to unconsciousness and death. Intentional serotonin overdose using anti-depressant medications is one instance in which serotonin syndrome is likely to be fatal without prompt medical treatment.

How much TCA does it take to overdose?

The therapeutic index of TCAs is narrow, and therefore, the ingestion of 10 to 20 mg/kg is potentially life-threatening. Symptoms usually start in 30 to 40 minutes, and signs of toxicity are usually clinically apparent within 2 hours, but delayed toxicity may occur.

What happens with amitriptyline overdose?

Overdose of amitriptyline and other tricyclic antidepressants is characterized, in part, by anticholinergic effects such as coma, respiratory depression and tachycardia, along with consequences of sodium channel blockade, including prolongation of the QRS complex and negative inotropy [1].

How many TCA pills can be lethal?

All patients with suspected TCA overdose should be immediately evaluated, and a 12 lead EKG should be obtained. The therapeutic index of TCAs is narrow, and therefore, the ingestion of 10 to 20 mg/kg is potentially life-threatening.

How would I know if I had serotonin syndrome?

Serotonin Syndrome Symptoms Gastrointestinal symptoms include diarrhea and vomiting. Nervous system symptoms include overactive reflexes and muscle spasms, said Su. Other serotonin syndrome symptoms include high body temperature, sweating, shivering, clumsiness, tremors, and confusion and other mental changes.

What does too much serotonin feel like?

Serotonin is a chemical that the body produces naturally. It’s needed for the nerve cells and brain to function. But too much serotonin causes signs and symptoms that can range from mild (shivering and diarrhea) to severe (muscle rigidity, fever and seizures). Severe serotonin syndrome can cause death if not treated.

What are the risks of TCA overdose?

Therefore, its availability as an ‘over the counter’ drug, has lead to its’ higher usage in suicidal poisoning. Severe TCA overdose commonly causes fatal arrhythmia and myocardial depression due to blockade of sodium channels.

Is lipid therapy effective in treating TCA overdose?

In cases of severe TCA overdose that are refractory to conventional therapy, intravenous lipid emulsion therapy has been reported to improve signs and symptoms in moribund patients suffering from toxicities involving several types of lipophilic substances, therefore lipids may have a role in treating severe cases of refractory TCA overdose.

What are the signs and symptoms of TCA poisoning?

In TCA poisoning, cardiovascular toxicity is evident by presence of arrhythmia and hypotension. It commonly causes prolongation of QT interval and Torsade de pointes, tachyarrhythmias or bradyarrhythmias. Tachyarrhythmias are commonly of ventricular origin such as VT or ventricular fibrillation or of supraventricular origin.

What causes QT prolongation in TCA toxicity?

QT prolongation seen in cases of TCA overdose occurs due to potassium channel blockade that may potentially cause torsades de pointes. TCAs can also exert a quinidine-like toxic effect on the myocardium that can cause decreased cardiac contractility and hypotension. [5][6][7] Toxicokinetics TCAs are rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract.