What regulates bone resorption?

The osteoclasts are multi-nucleated cells that contain numerous mitochondria and lysosomes. These are the cells responsible for the resorption of bone. Osteoblasts are generally present on the outer layer of bone, just beneath the periosteum. Attachment of the osteoclast to the osteon begins the process.

Is autophagy good for bones?

Moreover, recent studies have shown that autophagy plays an important role for the maintenance of bone homeostasis. For instance, in vitro and animal and human studies indicate that autophagy dysfunction in bone cells is associated with the onset of bone diseases such as osteoporosis.

What is bone resorption caused by?

Causes Of Bone Resorption External resorption is often stimulated by injuries in the mouth and teeth that cause swelling and loss of bone. Such damages may take place from prolonged use of orthodontic appliances such as braces/ tooth grinding/ tooth bleaching.

What is protein autophagy?

Autophagy, a cellular homeostatic process responsible for the lysosomal turnover of organelles and proteins, has been implicated as a general response to oxidative stress in cells and tissues. This evolutionarily conserved process is finely regulated by a complex interplay of protein factors.

What stimulates bone resorption?

Parathyroid hormone (PTH) stimulates bone resorption by acting directly on osteoblasts/stromal cells and then indirectly to increase differentiation and function of osteoclasts. PTH acting on osteoblasts/stromal cells increases collagenase gene transcription and synthesis.

What inhibits bone resorption?

Calcitonin: This medication inhibits bone resorption by inhibiting the activity of osteoclasts.

Can autophagy reverse osteoporosis?

To further validate the role of autophagy in osteoporosis, the key gene for autophagosome formation in osteoblasts was knocked out, and this led to osteopenia or osteoporosis in rats. Additionally, the osteoporosis was significantly reversed when the rats were fed the autophagy agonist rapamycin [18].

How does osteoporosis affect homeostasis?

Osteoporosis affects homeostasis within the body because it harms the natural process of the skeletal system replacing its material continuously….

Does calcitriol cause bone resorption?

Calcitriol stimulates osteoclastic bone resorption by inducing RANKL and increasing the number and activity of osteoclasts.

Does vitamin D increase bone resorption?

Previous studies have shown that high doses of vitamin D did result in increased resorption of bone unless calcium was also supplemented. The active form of vitamin D called calcitriol increases the production of osteoclasts which enhance bone resorption.