What are microsatellites DNA?

Microsatellite, as related to genomics, refers to a short segment of DNA, usually one to six or more base pairs in length, that is repeated multiple times in succession at a particular genomic location. These DNA sequences are typically non-coding.

What is microsatellite DNA used for?

Microsatellites are widely used for DNA profiling, also known as “genetic fingerprinting”, of crime stains (in forensics) and of tissues (in transplant patients). They are also widely used in kinship analysis (most commonly in paternity testing).

Are there microsatellites in mitochondrial DNA?

Microsatellites were evaluated as genetic markers for the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) of Phytophthora cinnamomi for population studies. Two (A)n microsatellite loci were cloned from the mtDNA of P. cinnamomi.

What are two features of microsatellites?

Particular characteristics of microsatellites, such as their presence in the genomes of all living organisms, high level of allelic variation, co-dominant mode of inheritance and potential for automated analysis make them an excellent tool for a number of approaches like genotyping, mapping and positional cloning of …

What is microsatellite genotyping?

Genotyping is the process to identify the genotype of each microsatellite. The workflow of microsatellite genotyping generally involves specific primer design, amplification of microsatellites, and Polymorphism testing.

What is a microsatellite stable tumor?

MSI tumors are the subset of CRC that are characterized by dysfunction of mismatch repair genes (MMR) causing failure to repair errors in repetitive DNA sequences called microsatellites.

How can microsatellites be used for DNA genotyping?

Microsatellites exist in most biological genomes. They are evenly distributed in the genome, so they are widely used in genetic cross breeding and mapping markers of chromosome genetic map. Highly polymorphic microsatellite markers can be used to identify individuals in the population.

Where does microsatellite DNA present in the chromosome?

Explanation: Microsatellite DNA is less than 150bp and found in a dispersed condition all over the chromosome.

How are microsatellites used in DNA genotyping?

Microsatellites or STRs are repetitive co-dominant sequences of 2–6 bp of DNA that are present throughout the entire genome. They are often used for identification or fingerprinting of DNA. Microsatellites are amplified by PCR using fluorescently labeled primers and the amplicons are separated using CE.

What is a microsatellite analysis?

Microsatellite marker analysis involves PCR amplification of the microsatellite loci using fluorescently labeled primers that flank the repeated sequence. The labeled PCR products are then analyzed by CE to separate the amplicons by size.

Is microsatellite stable good or bad?

Microsatellite instability (MSI) is caused by mutations in DNA mismatch repair genes such as MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, and PMS2, and it is found in 10% to 15% of sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs). The presence of MSI predicts a good outcome in colorectal cancer.