What is enzootic abortion?
Enzootic abortion in sheep and goats is a contagious disease characterized by hyperthermia and late abortion, or birth of stillborn or weak lambs or kids (Rodolakis et al., 1998). The only presenting clinical sign may be serosanguineous vulvar discharges. Other animals may present with arthritis or pneumonia.
What is sheep chlamydiosis?
Background Information. Ovine chlamydiosis is a bacterial disease acquired from infected sheep or goats. It causes abortion in sheep and goats (known as enzootic abortion in ewes (EAE) or ovine enzootic abortion (OEA)).
What can cause abortion in sheep?
The most common causes of abortion in sheep are:
- Enzootic Abortion (Chlamydophila abortus)
- Border disease.
How does Toxoplasma cause abortion in sheep?
Toxoplasmosis as a Cause of Abortion in Sheep Toxoplasma gondii is a major cause of abortion in small ruminants throughout the world. Ingestion of sporulated coccidian oocytes early in gestation results in resorption or mummification; if ewes contract the disease late in gestation, abortions or perinatal deaths occur.
How is enzootic abortion transmitted?
Enzootic Abortion is highly contagious from sheep to sheep. 99% of infection takes place around lambing time with ewes and lambs picking the infection up from aborted lambs, infected cleansings and vaginal discharges (which can last for up to 3 weeks) from ewes which have aborted.
What is the meaning of enzootic?
Definition of enzootic of animal diseases. : peculiar to or constantly present in a locality.
What causes toxoplasmosis in sheep?
Toxoplasmosis results from infection of susceptible sheep with the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii. The sexual cycle takes place in cats while the asexual cycle can occur in a range of species including sheep.
What causes abortion in goats?
Causes of abortion can be broadly categorized into infectious and non-infectious causes. The commonly diagnosed infectious causes of abortion in sheep and goats are Coxiella burnetii (C. burnetii), Chlamydia abortus (C. abortus), Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Campylobacter fetus, Listeria spp.
How does Toxoplasma gondii cause abortion?
T. gondii enters the bloodstream of the ewe/doe and spreads to other tissues. In pregnant animals, T. gondii can invade and multiply in the placenta and pass to the fetus, causing fetal death, fetal mummification (where the animal reabsorbs the fetal fluid), stillbirth or the birth of weak kids/lambs.
When should a sheep be vaccinated for enzootic abortion?
Vaccination has to be given at least four weeks prior to mating to be effective. Enzootic Abortion of Ewes is caused by infection with the bacterium Chlamydia abortus.
What causes Campylobacter in sheep?
Ovine campylobacteriosis is an infectious disease of breeding ewes causing abortion in late pregnancy. It is caused by the bacteria Campylobacter fetus ssp. fetus. The disease is found in sheep around the world, but is an uncommon diagnosis in Western Australia (WA).
What is the enzootic cycle?
ENZOOTIC. A disease or maintenance transmission cycle occurring continuously among non-human animals in a particular region or locality. SUBTYPE. A distinct virus variant that can be antigenically distinguished from other closely related variants.