Why is there basophilic stippling in lead poisoning?

Lead-induced anemia is characterized by basophilic stippling of peripheral erythrocytes, because the P5N inhibition causes accumulation of pyrimidine nucleotides: normal depolymerization of reticulocyte ribosomal RNA does not occur, and granulae are formed.

What conditions cause basophilic stippling?

Basophilic stippling is found in a variety of clinical conditions such as heavy metal (particularly lead) poisoning and in certain genetic abnormalities of hemoglobin formation such as thalassemia major and minor.

What causes basophilic staining?

What structures are stained purple (basophilic)? DNA (heterochromatin and the nucleolus) in the nucleus, and RNA in ribosomes and in the rough endoplasmic reticulum are both acidic, and so haemotoxylin binds to them and stains them purple.

Why does lead poisoning cause Microcytic anemia?

Chronic lead poisoning inhibits the ability to produce hemoglobin by interfering with enzymatic steps in the heme synthesis pathway and diminishes red blood cells, thereby increasing risk of anemia [15]. The absorption of lead can cause iron deficiency and may further cause anemia.

What is coarse basophilic stippling?

Coarse basophilic stippling is seen in megaloblastic anemia and other forms of severe anemias, lead poisoning, and thalassemia. Coarse basophilic stippling indicates impaired hemoglobin synthesis, probably due to the instability of RNA in the young cell.

Is basophilic stippling normal?

Basophilic stippling is indicative of disturbed erythropoiesis. It can also be found in some normal individuals.

What type of inhibition is lead poisoning?

The primary hematologic effect of lead is interference at multiple points along the heme synthetic pathway. The two most important effects are inhibition of δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and ferrochelatase, resulting in the accumulation of heme intermediates such as protoporphyrin.

What causes Microcytic hypochromic Anaemia?

Iron deficiency hypochromic microcytic anemia is caused due to disruption of iron supply in diet due to decreased iron content in the diet, pathology of the small intestines like sprue and chronic diarrhea, gastrectomy, and deficiency of vitamin C in the diet.

Is basophilic stippling seen in sideroblastic anemia?

The anemia is moderate to severe and dimorphic. Microscopic viewing of the red blood cells will reveal marked unequal cell size and abnormal cell shape. Basophilic stippling is marked and target cells are common….Classification.

OMIM Name Gene
301310 sideroblastic anemia with spinocerebellar ataxia (ASAT) ABCB7

When do you see basophilic stippling?

Peripheral blood smear shows basophilic stippling in several red cells from a patient with lead poisoning. The granules represent ribosomal precipitates. A similar picture can be seen in a number of other conditions including thalassemia, megaloblastic anemia, sickle cell anemia, and sideroblastic anemia.

What causes lead poisoning?

Lead-based paint and lead-contaminated dust in older buildings are common sources of lead poisoning in children. Other sources include contaminated air, water and soil. Adults who work with batteries, do home renovations or work in auto repair shops also might be exposed to lead.

What causes fine basophilic stippling in lead toxicity?

Fine basophilic stippling may be seen artifactually, as well as in a variety of clinical instances mentioned below.   Classically, coarse basophilic stippling is associated with heavy metal toxicity with a predominant emphasis on lead poisoning.

What is the pathophysiology of lead poisoning?

Lead poisoning can affect many different organs primarily affects the nervous system, hematopoietic system, liver, and kidneys. Pathogenesis lead inhibits key enzymes in heme synthesis pathway inhibits ferrochelatase and ALA dehydratase.

What is basophilic stippling in peripheral blood smear?

Basophilic stippling is one example of several clinically significant erythrocyte inclusions identified on peripheral blood smears. The presence of basophilic stippling is attributed to aggregates of ribosomes or fragments of ribosomal RNA precipitated throughout the cytoplasm of circulating erythrocytes.

Who is at risk of lead poisoning?

Children are at greater risk as they are more likely to put objects in their mouth such as those that contain lead paint and absorb a greater proportion of the lead that they eat. Exposure at work is a common cause of lead poisoning in adults with certain occupations at particular risk. Diagnosis is typically by measurement of the blood lead level.